Nicotine addiction is a disease
Tobacco use, including in the form of tobacco products, is a significant threat to human health.
The composition of tobacco smoke includes substances that have toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic properties:
Tobacco use increases the risk of developing severe cardiovascular, bronchopulmonary, gastrointestinal, endocrine and oncological diseases, the reproductive system and other diseases.
Associated with smoking and diseases of the digestive system: chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, etc. Smokers have reduced the effectiveness of the treatment of peptic ulcer and 12 duodenal ulcer.
Smoking has a negative effect on carbohydrate and fat metabolism, on the function of the gonads in men.
Smoking can be the cause of: hearing loss, eye diseases, tobacco amblyopia, tooth enamel disorders, and decreased immunity. With prolonged smoking, visual acuity is lost, the sense of smell and taste buds are dulled.
Smoking pregnant can cause:
Nicotine addiction is a disease.
Nicotine is a plant alkaloid, just like heroin and cocaine. It causes the development of psychological and physical addictions, affecting the human behavioral reactions, albeit to a lesser extent than drugs.
Once in the brain, nicotine interacts with receptors, and as a result, d opamine is released, a substance that has a positive stimulating effect on the central nervous system. A smoking person has a “smoked -
In large doses (60 mg.), Nicotine causes paralysis of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Death occurs in the same way as with an overdose of drugs.
The most obvious sign of nicotine dependence is the appearance of withdrawal symptoms when smoking is stopped. Negative symptoms are possible such as: headache, malaise, weakness, increased anxiety, lowering blood pressure, irritability, sleep disturbance and others. In most cases, it is these feelings that prevent smoking cessation.
If you quit smoking, the body immediately begins the recovery process. As harmful substances are removed, the risk of cardiovascular disease is reduced. And although the process is slow, it is irreversible.
Refusing a bad habit gives a feeling of victory, improves self-
Quitting smoking is not easy, but possible.
Health Care products -
In the first weeks after quitting tobacco, withdrawal symptoms of nicotine addiction may occur. These symptoms manifest themselves in different ways and are most severe in the first days after quitting. Sleep disturbances, arrhythmia, mood decline, headache, digestive disorders, increased irritability and anxiety, excessive sweating, changes in appetite, general anxiety, impaired alertness and working capacity -
There is no reason to fear withdrawal symptoms,
they pass already in a couple of weeks and cause inconvenience only at the beginning of the throwing process. If the nicotine addiction is too great to quit on your own, we advise you to use the help of a consultant, with whom you choose the treatment method for nicotine addiction.
For the treatment of nicotine addiction, both nicotine replacement treatment (nicotine chewing gum and skin patch) and pill treatment are used -
Nicotine replacement treatment
Nicotine replacement treatment may be required with moderate or severe dependence on the Fagerström test . Most of all, nicotine patches and nicotine chewing gums are used as an aid in quitting smoking. Replacement drugs can be bought at a pharmacy without a prescription, but it’s wise to contact your family doctor, nurse, or quit counselor when drawing up a competent treatment plan. As a rule, nicotine replacement treatment is most effective in combination with competent counseling -
When using patches, the body evenly receives nicotine, the rapid rise and decrease in the concentration of nicotine in the blood, characteristic of smoking, disappears. Thus, you can better accustom your body to lower levels of nicotine. After every 3 weeks, you should gradually change the patches to others, with a lower content of nicotine.
Nicotine patches are effective for 16 hours (so-
There are nicotine gum strong (4 mg) and weak (2 mg) action. Nicotine chewing gum is used if necessary during the weaning period, that is, 8-
It should be remembered that a side effect of nicotine gum can be nausea or hiccups, trembling hands, heart palpitations. Also, nicotine that enters the stomach when chewing can cause irritation in the stomach. With constant chewing, there is also the danger of an overdose of nicotine.
Tobacco smoking is a major modifiable risk factor for death worldwide. Smoking tops the list of leading causes of noncommunicable diseases along with arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, alcohol abuse, lack of physical activity and unhealthy diet. The contribution of smoking to the overall mortality rate is 17.1%, and to the total loss due to disability -
Most smokers want to quit smoking and have tried repeatedly.
Nicotine addiction is a chronic condition similar to other types of addiction to any substance, requiring repeated interventions to achieve and maintain persistent smoking cessation. Nicotine contained in tobacco causes the development of a persistent adherence to smoking. After several weeks of daily smoking, cessation is usually accompanied by withdrawal. Nicotine acts as a complete agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (n-
It should be noted that smoking by the strength of the emerging dependence is equal to heroin and cocaine, smoking cessation is associated with withdrawal symptoms, including mood changes, anger, irritability, depression, impaired concentration.
One of the most important points in the fight against tobacco smoking is the widespread introduction into practice of methods to combat nicotine addiction, the effectiveness of which has been confirmed by modern criteria in randomized controlled trials, meta-
The recommendations for the treatment of smoking and nicotine addiction highlight 10 key points that must be considered in practice:
1. Tobacco addiction is a chronic disease that often requires repeated interventions and repeated attempts to stop smoking. However, there are effective treatments that can significantly increase the likelihood of prolonged smoking cessation.
2. It is imperative that clinicians and healthcare professionals constantly identify and document tobacco smoking status and treat every smoker.
3. The treatment of tobacco dependence is effective in a wide range of subpopulations (gender, age, state of health, educational level, etc.). Clinicians should encourage each patient to try to stop smoking, give appropriate advice and recommend medications that have been proven effective.
4. Short courses of treatment for nicotine addiction are effective. Clinicians should offer every smoking patient at least a short treatment with methods effective from the perspective of evidence-
5. Individual, group and telephone consultations are effective, and their effectiveness increases with the intensification of treatment (medication). Two components of counseling are particularly effective, and clinicians should use them when dealing with patients trying to stop smoking:
practical advice (answers to questions / training),
social support as part of the treatment.
6. There are a number of medications with proven effectiveness in the treatment of nicotine addiction, and the clinician must make every effort for their use by patients trying to quit smoking, except when there are medical contraindications or special groups in which there is insufficient evidence of effectiveness (pregnant women who use chewing and snuff, low-
nicotine chewing gum, nicotine inhaler, nicotine lollipops, nicotine nasal spray, nicotine-
The clinician should also consider the possibility of using combinations of drugs in cases where monotherapy is not effective enough and at the same time, the efficacy of the combination proposed for prescribing is greater than monotherapy.
7. Consultations and drug therapy are individually effective for the treatment of nicotine addiction, but in combination their effectiveness is increased. Therefore, clinicians should try to ensure that each patient receives both consultative and medical care.
8. Telephone counseling on smoking cessation issues is effective in the general population and can significantly expand the circle of patients. Therefore, doctors and healthcare professionals must implement this method in everyday practice.
9. If the smoker is currently not inclined to make an attempt to stop smoking, it is necessary to motivate him to such attempts in the future.
10. The treatment of nicotine addiction is effective both clinically and economically. The provision of counseling and medication for the treatment of nicotine addiction free of charge for the patient increases the likelihood of a successful outcome. Insurers and health workers should include methods that have proven efficacy in their insurance plans, as they are economically viable.
In World for the treatment of smoking, cytisine is also registered -
Drugs that are not recommended for the treatment of nicotine addiction due to the lack of evidence of their effectiveness for these purposes are serotonin reuptake inhibitors (sertaline, fluoxetine), anxiolytics (buspirone, diazepam),? -
All the methods of drug treatment of nicotine addiction recommended above, according to meta-
Fig. 1. A total assessment of the effect of pharmacotherapy on smoking cessation.
Smoking cessation was determined by the most stringent criteria. Data adjusted for age, gender, and daily cigarette requirements. CI -